γδ T Cells Differentially Regulate Bone Loss in Periodontitis Models

O. Barel, Y. Aizenbud, Y. Tabib, Y. Jaber, A. Leibovich, Y. Horev, K. Zubeidat, Y. Saba, L. Eli-Berchoer, O. Heyman, A. Wilensky, I. Prinz, A. H. Hovav*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations

Abstract

γδ T cells are nonclassical T lymphocytes representing the major T-cell population at epithelial barriers. In the gingiva, γδ T cells are enriched in epithelial regions adjacent to the biofilm and are considered to regulate local immunity to maintain host-biofilm homeostatic interactions. This delicate balance is often disrupted resulting in the development of periodontitis. Previous studies in mice lacking γδ T cells from birth (Tcrd-/- mice) examined the impact of these cells on ligature-induced periodontitis. Data obtained from those studies proposed either a protective effect or no impact to γδ T cells in this setting. Here, we addressed the role of γδ T cells in periodontitis using the recently developed Tcrd-GDL mice, enabling temporal ablation of γδ T cells. Specifically, the impact of γδ T cells during periodontitis was examined in 2 modalities: the ligature model and the oral infection model in which the pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis was administrated via successive oral gavages. Ablation of γδ T cells during ligature-induced periodontitis had no impact on innate immune cell recruitment to the ligated gingiva. In addition, the number of osteoclasts and subsequent alveolar bone loss were unaffected. However, γδ T cells play a pathologic role during P. gingivalis infection, and their absence prevented alveolar bone loss. Further analysis revealed that γδ T cells were responsible for the recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes to the gingiva following the exposure to P. gingivalis. γδ T-cell ablation also downregulated osteoclastogenesis and dysregulated long-term immune responses in the gingiva. Collectively, this study demonstrates that whereas γδ T cells are dispensable to periodontitis induced by the ligature model, they play a deleterious role in the oral infection model by facilitating pathogen-induced bone-destructive immune responses. On a broader aspect, this study highlights the complex immunopathologic mechanisms involved in periodontal bone loss.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)428-436
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Dental Research
Volume101
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© International Association for Dental Research and American Association for Dental, Oral, and Craniofacial Research 2021.

Keywords

  • Porphyromonas gingivalis
  • innate immunity
  • ligature
  • oral mucosa
  • osteoclasts
  • periodontitis

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