A double disadvantage? Immigration, gender, and employment status in Israel

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24 Scopus citations


This article examines gender differences in employment status among immigrants in Israel, and how these differences vary across origin groups. Analysis of the 1995 population census indicates that, all else being equal, immigrant women exert a negative effect on activity in the annual labor force. As time elapses, the probability of immigrant women being employed improves but remains considerably lower than that of both immigrant and native-born men. However, after a few years in the country, immigrant women do close the gap with native-born women. For employment status in the last week, being an immigrant woman has a positive effect on full-time employment. A detailed analysis reveals substantial stratification by country of birth. Thus, the patterns of employment status for immigrant groups can reflect different levels (single, double, and triple) of disadvantage or advantage for women. I attach this stratification to cultural background and social values of country of birth as well as to economic and religious considerations, not fully indexed by the census data.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-113
Number of pages27
JournalEuropean Journal of Population
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2008

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments This study was supported by a grant from the Julian Simon Research Fund, School of Business Administration, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The study was carried out during the author’s sabbatical year, as a visiting scholar, at the Center for Demography and Ecology (CDE), The University of Wisconsin-Madison. An earlier version of this article was presented at the CDE seminar, January 25, 2005; at the Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March 29–April 1, 2006 in Los Angeles (poster); at the IZA 3rd Migration Meeting, May 20–21, 2006 in Bonn; and at the European Population Conference, June 21–24, 2006 in Liverpool. I gratefully acknowledge the help of Benny Anderman in computer programming and data analysis. The comments on the article received from the editors and two anonymous referees of EJP were especially helpful. Responsibility for the contents of this article rests solely with the author.


  • Employment status
  • Immigration
  • Israel
  • Logistic regression
  • Multinomial logistic regression
  • Women

RAMBI Publications

  • Rambi Publications
  • Immigrants -- Israel -- Social conditions
  • Immigrant absorption -- Israel
  • Gender identity -- Israel
  • Women -- Israel -- Social conditions
  • Israel -- Economic conditions


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