A review of handwriting research: Progress and prospects from 1980 to 1994

Steve Graham*, Naomi Weintraub

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

258 Scopus citations


Contemporary handwriting research has focused on skilled performance, the developing capabilities of children, atypical development, the effectiveness of various letter forms, instructional techniques, and the construction and evaluation of assessment instruments. This paper critically reviews and synthesizes research conducted between 1980 and 1994 in each of these areas, providing suggestions for future research. Considerable progress was made during this time period in understanding the processes involved in handwriting control and development as well as in teaching students with handwriting difficulties. In addition, advances in theory, experimental procedures, on-line recording devices, and computerized instructional programs resulted in an increased level of sophistication. Thus, the prospects for future research in this area are promising.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)7-87
Number of pages81
JournalEducational Psychology Review
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1996


  • Assessment instruments
  • Handwriting research
  • Instructional techniques
  • Letter forms


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