A Simple Cardiovascular Model for the Study of Hemorrhagic Shock

Luciano Curcio*, Laura D'Orsi, Fabio Cibella, Linn Wagnert-Avraham, Dean Nachman, Andrea De Gaetano

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Hemorrhagic shock is the number one cause of death on the battlefield and in civilian trauma as well. Mathematical modeling has been applied in this context for decades; however, the formulation of a satisfactory model that is both practical and effective has yet to be achieved. This paper introduces an upgraded version of the 2007 Zenker model for hemorrhagic shock termed the ZenCur model that allows for a better description of the time course of relevant observations. Our study provides a simple but realistic mathematical description of cardiovascular dynamics that may be useful in the assessment and prognosis of hemorrhagic shock. This model is capable of replicating the changes in mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output after the onset of bleeding (as observed in four experimental laboratory animals) and achieves a reasonable compromise between an overly detailed depiction of relevant mechanisms, on the one hand, and model simplicity, on the other. The former would require considerable simulations and entail burdensome interpretations. From a clinical standpoint, the goals of the new model are to predict survival and optimize the timing of therapy, in both civilian and military scenarios.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number7936895
JournalComputational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
StatePublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Luciano Curcio et al.


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