## Abstract

Pinpointing extrema on a multidimensional hypersurface is an important generic problem with a broad scope of application in statistical mechanics, biophysics, chemical reaction dynamics, and quantum chemistry. Local minima of the hypersurface correspond to metastable structures and are usually the most important points to look for. They are relatively easy to find using standard minimizing algorithms. A considerably more difficult task is the location of saddle points. The saddle points most sought for are those which form the lowest barriers between given minima and are usually required for determining rates of rare events. We formulate a path functional minimum principle for the saddle point. We then develop a cubic spline method for applying this principle and locating the saddle point(s) separating two local minima on a potential hypersurface. A quasi-Newton algorithm is used for minimization. The algorithm does not involve second derivatives of the hypersurface and the number of potential gradients evaluated is usually less than 10% of the number of potential evaluations. We demonstrate the performance of the method on several standard examples and on a concerted exchange mechanism for self-diffusion in diamond. Finally, we show that the method may be used for solving large constrained minimization problems which are relevant for self-consistent field iterations in large systems.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 184111 |

Journal | Journal of Chemical Physics |

Volume | 128 |

Issue number | 18 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 2008 |

### Bibliographical note

Funding Information:This research was funded by the Israel Science Foundation (ISF).