Treatment of type 1 diabetes with insulin injection is expensive, complicated, and insuffi-cient. While cadaveric islet transplantations coupled with immunosuppressants can cure diabetes, the scarcity of acceptable islets is problematic. Developmental research on pancreas formation has informed in vitro differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into functional islets. Although generating β cells from stem cells offers a potential cure for type 1 diabetes, several challenges remain, including protecting the cells from the immune system.
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