The anticonvulsant drug lamotrigine is a recalcitrant environmental pollutant. It was detected in drinking water, surface water, reclaimed wastewater, arable soils, and even in edible crops. In this work, we studied the mechanisms of lamotrigine transformation by a common redox soil mineral, birnessite, in a single-solute system and in bisolute systems with vanillic acid or o-methoxyphenol. In the single-solute system, 28% of lamotrigine was transformed and 14 transformation products (TPs) were identified. Based on a detailed analysis of the TPs, we suggested that lamotrigine is transformed mainly by oxidation, addition, and dechlorination reactions. In the bisolute systems, the redox-active phenolic compounds enhanced the elimination and transformation of lamotrigine. Vanillic acid was more efficient, generating 92% transformation of lamotrigine (58 TPs were identified), whereas o-methoxyphenol induced 48% transformation (35 TPs were identified). In the bisolute system with phenolic compounds, lamotrigine has possibly been transformed mainly via addition reactions with phenolic compounds and their oxidation products (protocatechuic acid, quinone, and oligomers). Thus, masses of the formed TPs were elevated as compared to the parent compound. The current study demonstrates the important role of redox-active minerals and naturally occurring phenolic compounds in abiotic removal and transformation of a recalcitrant environmental pollutant.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Israel Science Foundation (grant number: 102/14) and by the Advanced School for Environmental Studies in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
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