Addition of danicopan to ravulizumab or eculizumab in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria and clinically significant extravascular haemolysis (ALPHA): a double-blind, randomised, phase 3 trial

ALXN2040-PNH-301 Investigators

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Symptoms of anaemia due to clinically significant extravascular haemolysis can affect patients with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) treated with C5 inhibitors (ravulizumab or eculizumab). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of danicopan (ALXN2040), an investigational, first-in-class, oral complement factor D inhibitor, as add-on therapy to ravulizumab or eculizumab in patients with PNH and clinically significant extravascular haemolysis. Methods: ALPHA is an ongoing, international, phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating danicopan as add-on therapy to ravulizumab or eculizumab. Eligible patients were adults (age ≥18 years) with PNH and clinically significant extravascular haemolysis (haemoglobin ≤9·5 g/dL; absolute reticulocyte count ≥120 × 109/L) on ravulizumab or eculizumab for at least 6 months. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to danicopan or placebo added to ravulizumab or eculizumab for 12 weeks using an interactive response technology system. Randomisation was stratified based on transfusion history, haemoglobin, and patients enrolled from Japan. The initial oral danicopan dose was 150 mg three times a day; escalation to 200 mg three times a day was permitted based on clinical response. The infusion dose level of eculizumab (every 2 weeks) ranged from 900 mg to 1500 mg, and for ravulizumab (monthly or every 8 weeks) ranged from 3000 mg to 3600 mg. The primary endpoint was change in haemoglobin concentration from baseline to week 12. Here we present the protocol-prespecified interim analysis, planned when approximately 75% of participants were randomly assigned to treatment and completed or discontinued at 12 weeks. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04469465). Findings: Individuals were randomly assigned between Dec 16, 2020, and Aug 29, 2022. At data cutoff (June 28, 2022), 73 individuals were randomly assigned, received treatment, and were analysed for safety (danicopan, n=49; placebo, n=24). The protocol-prespecified interim efficacy analysis set included the first 63 participants (danicopan, n=42; placebo, n=21). At week 12, danicopan plus ravulizumab or eculizumab increased haemoglobin versus placebo plus ravulizumab or eculizumab (least squares mean [LSM] change from baseline: danicopan, 2·94 g/dL [95% CI 2·52 to 3·36]; placebo, 0·50 g/dL [–0·13 to 1·12]; LSM difference, 2·44 g/dL [1·69 to 3·20]; p<0·0001). Grade 3 adverse events in the danicopan group were increased alanine aminotransferase (two [4%] of 49 patients), leukopenia (one [2%]), neutropenia (two [4%]), cholecystitis (one [2%]), COVID-19 (one [2%]), increased aspartate aminotransferase (one [2%]), and increased blood pressure (one [2%]), and in the placebo group were anaemia (one [4%] of 24 patients), thrombocytopenia (one [4%]), and asthenia (one [4%]). The serious adverse events reported in the danicopan group were cholecystitis (one [2%] patient) and COVID-19 (one [2%]) and in the placebo group were anaemia and abdominal pain, both in one (4%) patient. There were no serious adverse events related to study drug or deaths reported in the study. Interpretation: These primary efficacy and safety results show that danicopan as add-on treatment to ravulizumab or eculizumab significantly improved haemoglobin concentrations at week 12 with no new safety concerns, suggesting an improved benefit–risk profile in patients with PNH and clinically significant extravascular haemolysis. Funding: Alexion, AstraZeneca Rare Disease.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)e955-e965
JournalThe Lancet Haematology
Volume10
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Ltd

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Addition of danicopan to ravulizumab or eculizumab in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria and clinically significant extravascular haemolysis (ALPHA): a double-blind, randomised, phase 3 trial'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this