Algebraic Methods for Interactive Proof Systems

Carsten Lund, Lance Fortnow, Howard Karloff, Noam Nisan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

420 Scopus citations


A new algebraic technique for the construction of interactive proof systems is presented. Our technique is used to prove that every language in the polynomial-time hierarchy has an interactive proof system. This technique played a pivotal role in the recent proofs that IP = PSPACE [28] and that MIP = NEXP [4].

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)859-868
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the ACM
Issue number4
StatePublished - 10 Jan 1992


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