Alpha-chloralose (AC) is an anaesthetic compound also used as a rodenticide, and has dose-dependent central nervous system mixed effects of excitation and depression. The objectives of this study were to detail the clinical and clinicopathological characteristics, as well as the treatment and prognosis, of AC toxicosis in dogs and cats. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for AC poisoning between the years 1989 and 2004, and 33 dogs and 13 cats were included in the study. The most common clinical signs were seizures, muscle tremor, hyperaesthesia, hypothermia, salivation, myosis, stupor, coma and ataxia. Coma was more common, while salivation and ataxia were less common in cats compared to dogs. Although hypothermia was very common, especially in cats (90.9%), hyperthermia was frequently observed in dogs (21%). Treatment in all patients was supportive and symptomatic, and the most commonly used anticonvulsants were diazepam and barbiturates; however, severe unresponsive seizures in three dogs had to be controlled with inhalant gas anaesthesia. The hospitalisation period was 1-3 days, and the overall mortality rate was 6.5%. Alpha-chloralose poisoning seems to have a favourable prognosis in dogs and cats.