Ambulatory monitoring unmasks hypertension among kidney transplant patients: Single center experience and review of the literature

Eitan Gluskin, Keren Tzukert, Irit Mor-Yosef Levi, Olga Gotsman, Itamar Sagiv, Roy Abel, Aharon Bloch, Dvorah Rubinger, Michal Aharon, Michal Dranitzki Elhalel, Iddo Z. Ben-Dov*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Background: Disagreements between clinic and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements are well-described in the general population. Though hypertension is frequent in renal transplant recipients, only a few studies address the clinic-Ambulatory discordance in this population. We aimed to describe the difference between clinic and ambulatory BP in kidney transplant patients at our institution. Methods: We compared the clinic and ambulatory BP of 76 adult recipients of a kidney allograft followed at our transplant center and investigated the difference between these methods, considering confounding by demographic and clinical variables. Results: Clinic systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were 128 ± 13/79 ± 9 mmHg. Awake SBP and DBP were 147 ± 18/85 ± 10 mmHg. The clinic-minus-Awake SBP and DBP differences were-18 and-6 mmHg, respectively. The negative clinic-Awake ΔSBP was more pronounced at age > 60 years (p = 0.026) and with tacrolimus use compared to cyclosporine (p = 0.046). Sleep SBP and DBP were 139 ± 21/78 ± 11 mmHg. A non-dipping sleep BP pattern was noted in 73% of patients and was associated with tacrolimus use (p = 0.020). Conclusions: Our findings suggest pervasive underestimation of BP when measured in the kidney transplant clinic, emphasizes the high frequency of a non-dipping pattern in this population and calls for liberal use of ambulatory BP monitoring to detect and manage hypertension.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number284
JournalBMC Nephrology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 27 Jul 2019
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 The Author(s).


  • Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring
  • Calcineurin inhibitors
  • Cyclosporine
  • Kidney transplantation
  • Masked hypertension
  • Non-dipping
  • Tacrolimus


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