Anomaly Detection and Biomarkers Localization in Retinal Images

Liran Tiosano*, Ron Abutbul, Rivkah Lender, Yahel Shwartz, Itay Chowers, Yedid Hoshen, Jaime Levy

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: To design a novel anomaly detection and localization approach using artificial intelligence methods using optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans for retinal diseases. Methods: High-resolution OCT scans from the publicly available Kaggle dataset and a local dataset were used by four state-of-the-art self-supervised frameworks. The backbone model of all the frameworks was a pre-trained convolutional neural network (CNN), which enabled the extraction of meaningful features from OCT images. Anomalous images included choroidal neovascularization (CNV), diabetic macular edema (DME), and the presence of drusen. Anomaly detectors were evaluated by commonly accepted performance metrics, including area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, F1 score, and accuracy. Results: A total of 25,315 high-resolution retinal OCT slabs were used for training. Test and validation sets consisted of 968 and 4000 slabs, respectively. The best performing across all anomaly detectors had an area under the receiver operating characteristic of 0.99. All frameworks were shown to achieve high performance and generalize well for the different retinal diseases. Heat maps were generated to visualize the quality of the frameworks’ ability to localize anomalous areas of the image. Conclusions: This study shows that with the use of pre-trained feature extractors, the frameworks tested can generalize to the domain of retinal OCT scans and achieve high image-level ROC-AUC scores. The localization results of these frameworks are promising and successfully capture areas that indicate the presence of retinal pathology. Moreover, such frameworks have the potential to uncover new biomarkers that are difficult for the human eye to detect. Frameworks for anomaly detection and localization can potentially be integrated into clinical decision support and automatic screening systems that will aid ophthalmologists in patient diagnosis, follow-up, and treatment design. This work establishes a solid basis for further development of automated anomaly detection frameworks for clinical use.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3093
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jun 2024
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 by the authors.


  • age-related macular degeneration
  • anomaly detection
  • deep learning
  • optical coherence tomography angiography


Dive into the research topics of 'Anomaly Detection and Biomarkers Localization in Retinal Images'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this