Dental caries is caused by biofilm-forming acidogenic bacteria, especially Streptococcus mutans, and is still one of the most prevalent human bacterial diseases. The potential use of cannabidiol (CBD) in anti-bacterial therapies has recently emerged. Here we have studied the anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity of CBD against S. mutans. We measured minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC). The bacterial growth and changes in pH values were measured in a kinetic study. The biofilm biomass was assessed by Crystal Violet staining and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) metabolic assay. Spinning Disk Confocal Microscopy (SDCM) was used to assess biofilm structure, bacterial viability and extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production. CBD inhibited S. mutans planktonic growth and biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner, with similar MIC and MBIC values (5 µg/mL). CBD prevented the bacteria-mediated reduction in pH values that correlated with bacterial growth inhibition. SDCM showed a decrease of 50-fold in live bacteria and EPS production. CBD significantly reduced the viability of preformed biofilms at 7.5 µg/mL with an 80 ± 3.1% reduction of metabolic activity. At concentrations above 20 µg/mL, there was almost no bacterial recovery in the CBD-treated preformed biofilms even 48 h after drug withdrawal. Notably, precoating of the culture plate surfaces with CBD prior to incubation with bacteria inhibited biofilm development. Additionally, CBD was found to induce membrane hyperpolarization in S. mutans. Thus, CBD affects multiple processes in S. mutans including its cariogenic properties. In conclusion, we show that CBD has a strong inhibitory effect against cariogenic bacteria, suggesting that it is a potential drug adjuvant for reducing oral pathogenic bacterial load as well as protecting against dental caries.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.
- Streptococcus mutans
- dental caries