Nanoparticles of titanium(IV) complexes of phenolato ligands were formed and evaluated for cytotoxicity toward human HT-29 colon cancer, murine T-25 lymphoma, and murine HU-2 multidrug-resistant (MDR) cells. The nano-formulation, besides increasing the complexes' shelf lives, is particularly efficient in overcoming limitations in solubility and cell-penetration, thus enhancing biological accessibility; large complexes that were inactive when measured in a non-formulated form showed marked activity when nano-formulated. For active and accessible small complexes, the effect of the formulation was negligible. Most complexes showed similar activity toward MDR cells and their drug-sensitive analogues, further increasing their therapeutic potential. An exception is a particularly hydrophobic complex, which is presumably more accessible to interaction with the membrane ABCB1 (MDR1) transporter active in the multidrug resistance of HU-2 cells. The most efficient compound is a mononuclear complex of a single hexadentate ligand, combining particularly high activity and hydrolytic stability with accessibility aided by the nano-formulation. A nano-boost for the big: Titanium(IV) complexes of phenolato ligands were analyzed as synthesized and in nano-formulation and showed high cytotoxicity toward human and murine drug-sensitive and -resistant cells. The nano-formulation is highly efficient in improving the biological accessibility of particularly bulky complexes.
- multidrug resistance