Assessing and validating an educational resource package for health professionals to improve smoking cessation care in aboriginal and torres strait islander pregnant women

The ICAN QUIT in Pregnancy Pilot Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Australian Aboriginal pregnant women have a high smoking prevalence (45%). Health professionals lack adequate educational resources to manage smoking. Resources need to be tailored to ensure saliency, cultural-sensitivity and account for diversity of Indigenous populations. As part of an intervention to improve health professionals’ smoking cessation care in Aboriginal pregnant women, a resource package was developed collaboratively with two Aboriginal Medical Services. The purpose of this study was to assess and validate this resource package. A multi-centred community-based participatory 4-step process (with three Aboriginal Medical Services from three Australian states), included: (1) Scientific review by an expert panel (2) ‘Suitability of Materials’ scoring by two Aboriginal Health Workers (3) Readability scores (4) Focus groups with health professionals. Content was analysed using six pre-determined themes (attraction, comprehension, self-efficacy, graphics and layout, cultural acceptability, and persuasion), with further inductive analysis for emerging themes. Suitability of Material scoring was adequate or superior. Average readability was grade 6.4 for patient resources (range 5.1-7.2), and 9.8 for health provider resources (range 8.5-10.6). Emergent themes included ‘Getting the message right’; ‘Engaging with family’; ‘Needing visual aids’; and ‘Requiring practicality under a tight timeframe’. Results were presented back to a Stakeholder and Consumer Aboriginal Advisory Panel and resources were adjusted accordingly. This process ensured materials used for the intervention were culturally responsive, evidence-based and useful. This novel formative evaluation protocol could be adapted for other Indigenous and culturally diverse interventions. The added value of this time-consuming and costly process is yet to be justified in research, and might impact the potential adaption by other projects.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number1148
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2017
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments: The authors would like to acknowledge and pay their respects to the Aboriginal women and health professionals who shared their opinions. We would also like to acknowledge the Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services who partnered with us to hold the focus groups: Pangula Mannamurna Aboriginal Corporation (SA), Riverina Medical and Dental Aboriginal Corporation (NSW) and Wuchopperen Health Service Ltd (Qld). The authors thank the ICAN QUIT in Pregnancy Working Party and Stakeholders and Community Aboriginal Advisory Group consisting of staff from Biripi Aboriginal Corporation Medical Centre (NSW) and Tobwabba Aboriginal Medical Service Inc. (NSW) who have been working with us for over a year to develop this project. The following collaborators are in the ICAN QUIT in Pregnancy Pilot Group: Gillian S. Gould, Billie Bonevski, Peter O’Mara, Marilyn Clarke, Chris Oldmeadow, Alan Clough, Kristin Carson, Jennifer Reath, Yael Bar-Zeev, Michelle Bovill, Katherine Boydell, Ling Li Lim, Maree Gruppetta, Roger Smith, Yvonne Cadet-James, Renee Bittoun, Lou Atkin, Brett Cowling, and Lisa Orcher. This work was funded by the University of Newcastle, Hunter Cancer Research Alliance and the NSW Ministry of Health. Yael Bar-Zeev is supported by the University of Newcastle and Hunter Cancer Research Alliance PhD scholarship. Michelle Bovill is supported by the University of Newcastle and Australian Heart Foundation Indigenous Scholarships (#101555). Gillian Gould is supported by National Health and Medical Research Council and Cancer Institute New South Wales Early Career Research Fellowships (APP1092085 and 15ECF/I-52).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 by the authors.


  • Health professionals
  • Indigenous health
  • Pregnancy
  • Smoking cessation


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