"Candidatus Cardinium hertigii" (Bacteroidetes) is a maternally inherited endosymbiont known from several arthropods. Its mechanisms for persistence in host populations are mostly reproductive manipulation, though it has been occasionally reported to improve fitness parameters in several hosts. In Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges, the prevalence of "Candidatus Cardinium" infection was documented as moderate, with no detectable sex bias. We therefore investigated whether "Candidatus Cardinium" affects important fitness parameters, such as survival and body size, in Culicoides imicola, a dominant vector species. Field-collected midges were trapped and analyzed for survival under different environmental conditions and antibiotic treatment, taking into account "Candidatus Cardinium" infection status and parity status (i.e., parous or nulliparous). Additionally, wing lengths were measured as a proxy parameter for body size and analyzed together with "Candidatus Cardinium" infection data. The findings revealed no difference in survival of Culicoides infected with "Candidatus Cardinium" and that of uninfected midges in both parity states and under all tested conditions: optimal, starvation, heat, and antibiotic treatment. Beyond survival, no wing length difference was found for "Candidatus Cardinium"-infected versus uninfected midges. In aggregate, these findings support our conclusion that "Candidatus Cardinium" does not have an overt effect on the survival and size of adult C. imicola midges. "Candidatus Cardinium" may affect immature stages or may alter adult reproductive performance.