Asynchronous Replication Timing: A Mechanism for Monoallelic Choice During Development

Yehudit Bergman*, Itamar Simon, Howard Cedar

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Developmental programming is carried out by a sequence of molecular choices that epigenetically mark the genome to generate the stable cell types which make up the total organism. A number of important processes, such as genomic imprinting, selection of immune or olfactory receptors, and X-chromosome inactivation in females are dependent on the ability to stably choose one single allele in each cell. In this perspective, we propose that asynchronous replication timing (ASRT) serves as the basis for a sophisticated universal mechanism for mediating and maintaining these decisions.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number737681
Pages (from-to)1-10
JournalFrontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank our students and collaborators who participated in this research, especially Hagit Masika, Marganit Farago, Britny Blumenfeld, Lamia Halaseh, and Rachel Rapoport, the members of the Core Research Facility in the Hebrew University School of Medicine; Dan Lehmann and Eleonora Medvedev for assistance with the FACS analysis; Idit Shiff, Abed Nasereddin, and Alexia Azoulay for generating genomic data.

Funding Information:
This work was supported by research grants from the Israel Science Foundation (grants #734/13 and #1228/18 to YB, grant #282/16 to HC, grants #184/16 and #1283/21 to IS), ISF-NSFC (grant #2555/16 to IS), the Israel Cancer Research Foundation (IS and grant #211410 to YB, grant #210910 to HC), the Binational Science Foundation (grant #2100289 to YB, grant #2019688 to

Publisher Copyright:
© Copyright © 2021 Bergman, Simon and Cedar.


  • DNA replication
  • X-chromosome inactivation
  • chromatin accessibility
  • embryonal stem cells
  • epigenetic regulation
  • genomic imprinting


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