B Vitamins, Glucoronolactone and the Immune System: Bioavailability, Doses and Efficiency

Camelia Munteanu*, Betty Schwartz*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The present review deals with two main ingredients of energy/power drinks: B vitamins and glucuronolactone and their possible effect on the immune system. There is a strong relationship between the recommended daily dose of selected B vitamins and a functional immune system. Regarding specific B vitamins: (1) Riboflavin is necessary for the optimization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the fight against bacterial infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. (2) Niacin administered within normal doses to obese rats can change the phenotype of skeletal fibers, and thereby affect muscle metabolism. This metabolic phenotype induced by niacin treatment is also confirmed by stimulation of the expression of genes involved in the metabolism of free fatty acids (FFAs) and oxidative phosphorylation at this level. (3) Vitamin B5 effects depend primarily on the dose, thus large doses can cause diarrhea or functional disorders of the digestive tract whereas normal levels are effective in wound healing, liver detoxification, and joint health support. (4) High vitamin B6 concentrations (>2000 mg per day) have been shown to exert a significant negative impact on the dorsal root ganglia. Whereas, at doses of approximately 70 ng/mL, sensory symptoms were reported in 80% of cases. (5) Chronic increases in vitamin B12 have been associated with the increased incidence of solid cancers. Additionally, glucuronolactone, whose effects are not well known, represents a controversial compound. (6) Supplementing with D-glucarates, such as glucuronolactone, may help the body’s natural defense system function better to inhibit different tumor promoters and carcinogens and their consequences. Cumulatively, the present review aims to evaluate the relationship between the selected B vitamins group, glucuronolactone, and the immune system and their associations to bioavailability, doses, and efficiency.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number24
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • B vitamins
  • bioavailability
  • cobalamin
  • glucuronolactone
  • immune system
  • niacin
  • riboflavin


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