Bacteremia with Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacterales in Immunocompromised Patients Colonized with These Bacteria

Diana Averbuch, Liya Moshkovitz, Shlomi Ilan, Wiessam Abu Ahmad, Violeta Temper, Jacob Strahilevitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


We aimed to analyze rates and risk factors for carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) bloodstream infection (BSI) in CPE-colonized patients with malignancies or following hematopoietic cell transplantation. We retrospectively collected data on demography, underlying disease, colonizing CPE, treatment, intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization, CPE-BSI, and mortality in CPE-colonized immunocompromised patients (2014-2020). Two hundred twenty-one patients were colonized with 272 CPE: 254 (93.4%) carried one carbapenemase [KPC (50.4%), NDM (34.6%), OXA-48-like (5.2%), and VIM (3.3%)]; 18 (6.6%) carried two carbapenemases. Twenty-eight (12.7%) patients developed CPE-BSI. Univariate analysis revealed CPE-BSI-Associated factors: younger age, carbapenem or aminoglycoside exposure, ICU admission, neutropenia, carrying serine carbapenemase-producing, and specifically KPC-producing bacteria, colonization with several CPE, and detection of several carbapenemases. None of 23 auto-HSCT recipients developed CPE-BSI. In multivariate analysis, ICU hospitalization was significantly associated with CPE-BSI (odds ratio [OR] 2.82, 95% CI 1.10-7.20; p = 0.042); solid tumor diagnosis was protective (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-1.01; p = 0.038). One-year crude mortality was 108/221 (48.8%), including 19/28 (67.9%) and 89/193 (46.1%) in patients with and without CPE-BSI, p = 0.104. To conclude, CPE-BSI is rare in CPE-colonized patients with solid tumors and following auto-HSCT. ICU hospitalization increased CPE-BSI risk. These data can help to guide empirical anti-CPE antibiotic therapy in patients colonized with these bacteria.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)593-600
Number of pages8
JournalMicrobial Drug Resistance
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 May 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Copyright 2022, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers 2022.


  • bacteremia
  • cancer
  • carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales
  • colonization
  • hematopoietic stem cell transplantation


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