Beyond THC and endocannabinoids

Pal Pacher, Natalya M. Kogan, Raphael Mechoulam

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

97 Scopus citations


Research in the cannabinoid field, namely on phytocannabinoids, the endogenous cannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and their metabolizing and synthetic enzymes, the cannabinoid receptors, and anandamide-like cannabinoid compounds, has expanded tremendously over the last few years. Numerous endocannabinoid-like compounds have been discovered. The Cannabis plant constituent cannabidiol (CBD) was found to exert beneficial effects in many preclinical disease models ranging from epilepsy, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and autoimmunity to neurodegenerative and kidney diseases and cancer. CBD was recently approved in the United States for the treatment of rare forms of childhood epilepsy. This has triggered the development of many CBD-based products for human use, often with overstated claims regarding their therapeutic effects. In this article, the recently published research on the chemistry and biological effects of plant cannabinoids (specifically CBD), endocannabinoids, certain long-chain fatty acid amides, and the variety of relevant receptors is critically reviewed.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)637-659
Number of pages23
JournalAnnual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
StatePublished - 6 Jan 2020

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  • anandamide
  • cannabidiol
  • cannabinoid receptors
  • entourage effect
  • long-chain fatty acid amides


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