AU Extracellular: Pleaseconfirmthatallheadinglevelsarerepresentedcorrectly vesicles (EVs) provide a central mechanism of:cell-cell communication. While EVs are found in most organisms, their pathogenesis-promoting roles in parasites are of particular interest given the potential for medical insight and consequential therapeutic intervention. Yet, a key feature of EVs in human parasitic protozoa remains elusive: their mechanisms of biogenesis. Here, we survey the current knowledge on the biogenesis pathways of EVs secreted by the four main clades of human parasitic protozoa: apicomplexans, trypanosomatids, flagellates, and amoebae. In particular, we shine a light on findings pertaining to the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) machinery, as in mammals it plays important roles in EV biogenesis. This review highlights the diversity in EV biogenesis in protozoa, as well as the related involvement of the ESCRT system in these unique organisms.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
NR-R is grateful for the support from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program [grant agreement No. 757743], and the Israel Science Foundation (ISF) [Grant Application no. 570/21]; also supported by the Minerva foundation (grant no. 714142) with funding from the Federal German Ministry for Education and Research. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Copyright: © 2023 Cruz Camacho et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.