The grand challenges of contemporary fundamental physics-dark matter, dark energy, vacuum energy, inflation and early universe cosmology, singularities and the hierarchy problem-all involve gravity as a key component. And of all gravitational phenomena, black holes stand out in their elegant simplicity, while harbouring some of the most remarkable predictions of General Relativity: event horizons, singularities and ergoregions. The hitherto invisible landscape of the gravitational Universe is being unveiled before our eyes: the historical direct detection of gravitational waves by the LIGO-Virgo collaboration marks the dawn of a new era of scientific exploration. Gravitational-wave astronomy will allow us to test models of black hole formation, growth and evolution, as well as models of gravitational-wave generation and propagation. It will provide evidence for event horizons and ergoregions, test the theory of General Relativity itself, and may reveal the existence of new fundamental fields. The synthesis of these results has the potential to radically reshape our understanding of the cosmos and of the laws of Nature. The purpose of this work is to present a concise, yet comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the relevant fields of research, summarize important open problems, and lay out a roadmap for future progress. This write-up is an initiative taken within the framework of the European Action on 'Black holes, Gravitational waves and Fundamental Physics'.
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This article is based upon work from COST Action CA16104 'GWverse', supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology). We would like to thank Walter del Pozzo for useful comments. AA acknowledges partial support from the Polish National Science Center (NCN) through the grant UMO-2016/23/B/ST9/02732 and is currently supported by the Carl Tryggers Foundation through the grant CTS 17:113. LB acknowledges support from STFC through Grant No. ST/R00045X/1. VC acknowledges financial support provided under the European Union's H2020 ERC Consolidator Grant 'Matter and strong-field gravity: New frontiers in Einstein's theory' grant agreement no. MaGRaTh-646597. TPS acknowledges partial support from Science and Technology Facilities Council Consolidated Grant ST/P000703/1. KB acknowledges support from the Polish National Science Center (NCN) grant: Sonata Bis 2 (DEC-2012/07/E/ST9/01360). EB acknowledges financial support from projects 176003 and 176001 by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia. TB was supported by the TEAM/2016-3/19 grant from FNP. PC acknowledges support from the Austrian Research Fund (FWF), Project P 29517-N16, and by the Polish National Center of Science (NCN) under grant 2016/21/B/ST1/00940. BK acknowledges support from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ERC-2014-STG under grant agreement No 638435 (GalNUC) and from the Hungarian National Research, Development, and Innovation Office grant NKFIH KH-125675. GN is supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF) under grant 200020-168988. PP acknowledges financial support provided under the European Union's H2020 ERC, Starting Grant agreement no. DarkGRA-757480. US acknowledges H2020- MSCA-RISE-2015 Grant No. 690904, NSF Grant No. PHY-090003 and PRACE Tier-0 Grant No. PPFPWG. The Flatiron Institute is supported by the Simons Foundation. PAS acknowledges support from the Ram?n y Cajal Programme of the Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness of Spain. EB supported by NSF Grants No. PHY-1607130 and AST- 1716715. KB, AC, AG, NI, TP and GZ acknowledge financial support from the Slovenian Research Agency. SB acknowledges support by the EU H2020 under ERC Starting Grant, no. BinGraSp-714626. PC-D is supported by the Spanish MINECO (grants AYA2015-66899- C2-1-P and RYC-2015-19074) and the Generalitat Valenciana (PROMETEOII-2014-069). DG is supported by NASA through Einstein Postdoctoral Fellowship Grant No. PF6-170152 by the Chandra X-ray Center, operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for NASA under Contract NAS8-03060. RE acknowledges financial support provided by the Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) under the grant no. 117F296. JAF is supported by the Spanish MINECO (AYA2015-66899-C2-1-P), by the Generalitat Valenciana (PROMETEOII-2014-069), and by the H2020-MSCA-RISE-2017 Grant No. FunFiCO-777740. FMR is supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (T?BITAK) project 117F295. IR was supported by the POLONEZ programme of the National Science Centre of Poland which has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie SklodowskaCurie grant agreement No. 665778. AS thanks the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness, the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigaci?n, the Vicepresid?ncia i Conselleria d'Innovaci?, Recerca i Turisme del Govern de les Illes Balears, the European Commission, the European Regional Development Funds (ERDF). NS acknowledges support from DAAD Germany-Greece Grant (ID 57340132) and GWAVES (pr002022) of ARIS-GRNET(Athens). HW acknowledges financial support by the Royal Society UK under the University Research Fellowship UF160547-BHbeyGR and the Research Grant RGF-R1-180073. KY is supported by T?BITAK-117F188.
© 2019 IOP Publishing Ltd.
- birth and evolution of black holes
- black holes
- fundamental physics
- gravitational waves
- gravitational-wave astronomy
- source modelling