Blockmaster: Partitioning protein kinase structures using normal-mode analysis

Marina Shudler, Masha Y. Niv

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations

Abstract

Protein kinases are key signaling enzymes which are dysregulated in many health disorders and therefore represent major targets of extensive drug discovery efforts. Their regulation in the cell is exerted via various mechanisms, including control of the 3D conformation of their catalytic domains. We developed a procedure, BlockMaster, for partitioning protein structures into semirigid blocks and flexible regions based on residue-residue correlations calculated from normal modes. BlockMaster provided correct partitioning into domains and subdomains of several test set proteins for which documented expert annotation of subdomains exists. When applied to representative structures of protein kinases, BlockMaster identified semirigid blocks within the traditional N-terminal and C-terminal lobes of the kinase domain. In general, the block regions had elevated helical content and reduced, but significant, coil content compared to the nonblock (flexible) regions. The specificity-determining regions, previously used to derive inhibitory peptides, were found to be more flexible in the tyrosine kinases than in serine/threonine kinases. Two blocks were identified which spanned both lobes. The first, which we termed the "pivot" block, included the αC-β4 loop in the N-terminal lobe and part of the activation loop in the C-terminal lobe and appeared in both the active and inactive conformations of the kinases. The second, which we termed the "loop" block, differed between the active and inactive conformations. In the structures of active kinases, this block included part of the activation loop in the C-terminal lobe and the αC helix in the N-terminal lobe, representing a known interaction that stabilizes the active conformation. In the inactive structures, this block included G loop residues instead of the αC residues. This novel inactive "loop" block may stabilize the inactive conformation and thus downregulate kinase activity.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)7528-7534
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry A
Volume113
Issue number26
DOIs
StatePublished - 2 Jul 2009

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