Building bridges in catalysis science. Monodispersed metallic nanoparticles for homogeneous catalysis and atomic scale characterization of catalysts under reaction conditions

Elad Gross, James M. Krier, Lars Heinke, Gabor A. Somorjai*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations

Abstract

The reactivity of small (<1.5 nm), highly oxidized metallic nanoparticles and the utilization of Sum Frequency Generation spectroscopy (SFG) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) for investigations of catalysts under reaction conditions are discussed in this review paper. Batch and flow reactor studies were carried out using highly oxidized 40 atom clusters (Pt, Pd and Rh) to measure reaction rate and product distribution of electrophilic reactions, using toluene as a solvent. These heterogeneous catalysts show reactivity which is similar and sometimes even higher than the homogeneous catalysts. The combination of an in situ SFG and STM measurements facilitate a detection of the surface structure and reaction intermediates under reaction conditions. While the STM detects the surface reconstruction and the mobility of products and reactants molecules, the SFG can correlate the reactivity and more importantly the selectivity, to the active surface intermediates. The recent developments in these two research areas are detailed in this review paper.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)13-23
Number of pages11
JournalTopics in Catalysis
Volume55
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2012
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgement This work was supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

Keywords

  • Characterization under reaction conditions
  • Converting homogeneous to heterogenous catalysis
  • Monodispersed metal nanoparticles
  • SFG and STM characterization of catalysts

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