To isolate genes involved in tumor formation and in embryogenesis, a subtracted cDNA library was constructed from a c-myc-induced mouse brain tumor. A gene isolated in this screen, named TMP (tumor-associated membrane protein), codes for a putative glycoprotein with four transmembrane domains. The TMP gene was found to be highly expressed in brain tumor cells but not in normal brain. It is also expressed at high levels in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells, but markedly down-regulated in these cells after their differentiation into embryoid bodies. The TMP amino acid sequence bears high homology to the growth arrest specific protein PMP22/GAS-3, which is involved in several human peripheral neuropathies. The expression patterns of the TMP and PMP22 genes in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts were compared at different proliferation states. The results suggest an inverse pattern of expression for the two homologs, TMP expression being high during cell proliferation and PMP22 expression being high during growth arrest. To further characterize the TMP gene we have isolated its human homolog and examined its expression in embryonic and adult tissues. In our search for human sequences homologous to TMP and PMP22, we identified two new genes which we have named XMP and YMP. Thus, we present a novel family of membrane glycoproteins, one member of which is closely associated with proliferation and another with growth arrest.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Dr. Claudio Schneider for sending us the mouse PMP22/GAS3 probe. We thank Dr. Bat-Sheva Kerem, Dr. Shoshana Klein and Dr. Giora Simchen for critical reviewing of the manuscript. This research was supported by grant # 3811 from The Council For Tobacco Research, by grant # 93-00017 from The United-States - Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF), Jerusalem, Israel, and by The Leukemia Research Foundation, Inc. N.B. is an Allon fellow.
- Embryonic stem cells
- Growth arrest