Chemical composition, in vitro digestibility, and storability of selected agro-industrial by-products: Alternative ruminant feed ingredients in Israel

Justine Kilama, Yoav Yakir, Yoav Shaani, Gaby Adin, Samir Kaadan, Philip Wagali, Chris Sabastian, Godliver Ngomuo, Sameer J. Mabjeesh*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The global demand for animal-based products is rising in the face of dwindling feed resources, and yet a huge pool of agro-industrial by-products (AIBPs) are generated, underutilized, and improperly deposited to landfills leading to environmental pollution. Ruminants have a special microbiome that can bioprocess and convert human inedible fibrous material into meat and milk, which appears as a great opportunity to simultaneously reduce pollution while promoting food security. In this study, we collected 15 domestically produced AIBPs from various regions of Israel during both winter and summer seasons to examine their potential as ruminant feed alternatives. We evaluated their storability, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility and performed a hierarchical cluster analysis to categorize them based on their distinctive nutritional characteristics. Among the 15 AIBPs, 8 have rich essential nutrients, and minerals, and have excellent in vitro digestibility, but they have less than 6 days of storability and develop off-odours. Out of 15 AIBPs; 8 have low dry matter (DM) content, ranging from 4.7% to 30.45% while the remaining 7 AIBPs have high DM, ranging from 50.6% to 98.6%. The high crude protein (CP) category included 6 AIBPs with CP ranging from 19.7% in beer pulp to 32.1% in jojoba cake. Starch content was high in 3 AIBPs ranging from 33.7% in timorim mix to 65.2% in Irish potato culls. Considerable crude fat content was reported in 4 AIBPs, the highest being yoghurt waste with 42.8%. In terms of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 5 AIBPs had low NDF content ranging from 0% to 14.1%; 5 AIBPs had moderate concentration ranging from 34.3% to 50.7%, and 5 AIBPs had high levels between 66.6% and 82.8%. Interestingly, 10/15 AIBPs had medium to high in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD). This study, therefore, suggests that recycling AIPBs for livestock nutrition has enormous potential that is still underutilized and offers excellent ways to gain socioeconomic and environmental benefits by expanding animal feed resources and reducing feed-food competition, and landfill burden. However, additional studies are necessary to focus on affordable storage technology to prolong the storability of AIBPs and feeding trials to determine the productive performance of livestock fed an AIBPs-based diet.

Original languageAmerican English
Article numbere14581
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2023

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  • Agro-industrial by-products
  • Environmental pollution
  • In vitro digestibility
  • Ruminants' feedstuffs


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