PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate the clinical response and hemodynamic changes in cavernosal arteries after oral administration of sildenafil without and with audiovisual sexual stimulation and to compare those responses with responses from intracavernosal injections of vasoactive agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained. Thirteen consecutive patients (age range, 22-77 years; mean, 60.4 years) with erectile dysfunction were evaluated with clinical assessment and cavernosal duplex ultrasonography (US). The patients were examined at two sessions 3 weeks apart. First, each patient received 100 mg of sildenafil citrate orally and was examined 60 minutes later without any sexual stimulation. Each patient then underwent repeat clinical and duplex US assessment after audiovisual sexual stimulation. Three weeks later, the patients underwent identical clinical evaluation and duplex US after intracavernosal injection of a commercially available combination of papaverine, prostaglandin E1, and phentolamine. Clinical and duplex US data (ie, peak systolic velocity [PSV]) were examined by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test for matched pairs. RESULTS: At rest, the overall mean cavernosal artery PSV was 1.08 cm/sec and remained unchanged after intake of sildenafil without any audiovisual stimulation, with no clinical evidence of erection. With the addition of audiovisual sexual stimulation, eight (62%) of 13 patients had penile congestion or erection, and six (46%) had a PSV greater than 25 cm/sec. With intracavernosal injection of the combination of three drugs, all 13 patients achieved congestion or erection, and 10 (77%) had a PSV greater than 25 cm/sec. Both clinical and duplex US responses to intracavernosal injection were significantly greater than they were to sildenafil with audiovisual sexual stimulation (P = .04 and .003, respectively). CONCLUSION: Oral sildenafil with audiovisual sexual stimulation led to a significant clinical response and increment in blood flow in the cavernosal arteries. However, more patients responded to intracavernosal injection of the combination of three drugs than to sildenafil, and the clinical response was significantly better.