Clinical, biochemical, and hematological characteristics, disease prevalence, and prognosis of dogs presenting with neutrophil cytoplasmic toxicity

Itamar Aroch*, Eyal Klement, Gilad Segev

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations

Abstract

Neutrophil cytoplasmic toxicity is manifested as an abnormality in cell size or the cytoplasmic content upon examination of Romanowsky-stained blood smears, and is traditionally associated with infection and inflammation. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the association of such changes with clinical and clinicopathologic characteristics, diseases, and prognoses in dogs. Dogs with neutrophil toxicity (n = 248) were compared with negative controls (n = 248). Statistical analyses included chi-square tests, independent t-tests, nonparametric Mann-Whitney tests, the chi-square trend test, and survival analysis. Dogs with neutrophil toxicity had a significantly higher prevalence of pale mucous membranes, tachycardia, fever, abdominal organomegaly, icterus, melena, and hematuria. Most mean hematologic variables were significantly different between groups. Dogs with neutrophil toxicity had a significantly (P < .05) higher prevalence of leukocytosis, leukopenia, neutrophilia, neutropenia, anemia, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hypocalcemia. The prevalence of pyometra, parvovirus infection, acute renal failure, peritonitis, immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, pancreatitis, septicemia, and neoplastic disorders was significantly higher among these dogs. Case fatality, hospitalization length, and treatment cost were significantly (P < .001) higher in dogs with neutrophil toxicity. Neutrophil toxicity severity was significantly (P < .0035) and positively associated with neutropenia, and negatively associated with leukocytosis and neutrophilia. A significant trend (P = .05) toward increasing case fatality with an increase of neutrophil toxicity was observed. In the neutrophil toxicity group, dogs with leukopenia (<5.0 × 103/mm3) had a significantly (P < .0001) higher case fatality compared to dogs with normal or high leukocyte counts. We conclude that evaluation of blood smears for neutrophil cytoplasmic toxicity provides useful clinical information and can serve as a good prognostic predictor.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)64-73
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume19
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2005

Keywords

  • Canine
  • Döhle bodies
  • Hematology
  • Leukocytes
  • Toxic changes
  • Toxic neutrophils

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