Because of the profound ecological and economic impacts of many non-native insect species, early detection and eradication of newly founded, isolated populations is a high priority for preventing damages. Though successful eradication is often challenging, the effectiveness of several treatment methods/tactics is enhanced by the existence of Allee dynamics in target populations. Historically, successful eradication has often relied on the application of two or more tactics. Here, we examine how to combine three treatment tactics in the most cost-effective manner, either simultaneously or sequentially in a multiple-annum process. We show that each tactic is most efficient across a specific range of population densities. Furthermore, we show that certain tactics inhibit the efficiency of other tactics and should therefore not be used simultaneously; but since each tactic is effective at specific densities, different combinations of tactics should be applied sequentially through time when a multiple-annum eradication programme is needed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We sincerely thank the two anonymous reviewers and the editor for their helpful comments on the manuscript. For financial support, we acknowledge the School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University (A. Lampert) and the USDA Forest Service and grant EVA4.0, No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000803 financed by The Czech Operational Programme ‘Research, Development and Education’ (A. M. Liebhold).
© 2020 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
- gypsy moth
- mating disruption
- sterile male