Commemorating from a distance: the digital transformation of Holocaust memory in times of COVID-19

Tobias Ebbrecht-Hartmann*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


The severe restrictions on public life in many countries following the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic specifically affected Holocaust memorials and museums in all parts of the world, especially in Europe and in Israel. These measures posed a significant challenge, because contemporary forms of Holocaust commemoration are particularly based on the personal experience of presence at museums and historical sites. In contrast to the experience of distancing in face of the COVID-19 pandemic, establishing the presence of the past is thus a crucial element of contemporary Holocaust commemoration. This article explores the relationship between presence and absence, proximity and distance, guided commemoration and online engagement by critically analyzing digital activities of Holocaust memorials and museums in response to the pandemic. It argues that in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, Holocaust memorials began experimenting with the potential of social media for Holocaust memory. These experiments finally accepted the ongoing generational change and reacted to significant previous shifts in media consumption that were already affecting Holocaust commemoration.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1095-1112
Number of pages18
JournalMedia, Culture and Society
Issue number6
StatePublished - Sep 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2020.


  • COVID-19
  • Holocaust
  • digital culture
  • memorials
  • memory
  • social media


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