Commute variability and strain

Avraham N. Kluger*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

98 Scopus citations


The commute impedance model (e.g. Stokols, Novaco, Stokols and Campbell, 1978) is evaluated through a literature review and a survey of commuters who drive to work (N = 418). A new construct for the study of communting - commute variability - is introduced, and tested in the framework of the survey. Findings from the literature review indicated (a) partial support for the first proposition of the impedance ~model namely, that impedance - measured as commute distance of time - causes strain (e.g employee health deficits), but (b) no support for the second proposition of the model namely, that the impedance-strain is moderated by control or the availability of choice. Similarly, the survey showed that (a) commute length (impedance) is consistently correlated with strain, (b) choice is weakly and negatively related to strain, but (c) there is no interactive relationship of choice and length with strain. Furthermore, the results suggest that (a) commute variability is the strongest correlate of commute strain, and that (b) once commute variability is partialled out, most of the partial correlations between impedance and strain are not significant. The paper concludes with an alternative commuting-strain model which includes the new commute-variability construct.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)147-165
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Organizational Behavior
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1998


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