Background: Acellular dermal matrices are commonly used to support implant-based breast reconstruction. Meshing may enhance integration, reduce drain time and seroma, and decrease surgical costs. Methods: This was a retrospective, single-center analysis of 83 adult women (115 breasts) undergoing one-stage (84.3 percent) or two-stage (15.7 percent) immediate breast reconstruction with bovine-derived acellular dermal matrix (SurgiMend) meshed at a 2:1 ratio. Outcomes were compared with previously published data from a control group of 111 patients (147 breasts) undergoing the same procedure with nonmeshed (fenestrated) acellular dermal matrix. Results: The mean age of patients receiving meshed acellular dermal matrix was 48.3 years and the mean body mass index was 23.6 kg/m2. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics versus controls, other than chemotherapy history (received by fewer patients in the meshed acellular dermal matrix group). Mean follow-up was 23.6 months. Overall rates of minor and major complications in the meshed acellular dermal matrix group were 16.5 percent and 13.0 percent, respectively - similar to controls (25.2 percent and 12.9 percent). However, with meshed acellular dermal matrix, there were significantly fewer major seromas (0 percent versus 8.2 percent; OR, ∞; 95 percent CI, 1.927 to ∞), fewer total hematomas (0 percent versus 4.8 percent; OR, ∞; 95 percent CI, 1.022 to ∞), and fewer total infections (10.4 percent versus 23.8 percent; OR, 2.682; 95 percent CI, 1.259 to 5.802) compared with controls. Time to drain removal was reduced. Rates of capsular contracture (5.2 percent versus 2.7 percent) and explantation (5.2 percent versus 2.7 percent) were similar in the meshed acellular dermal matrix and control groups. Conclusion: Acellular dermal matrix meshing reduces rates of postoperative seroma, hematoma, and infection and decreases drain removal time compared with nonmeshed acellular dermal matrix. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.
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© 2019 by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.