Bisphenol-A (BPA), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), and 4-nonylphenol (4NP) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are useful models for studying the potential fate and transport of EDCs in soil and water environments. Two alluvial soils with contrasting physicochemical properties were used as adsorbents for this study. The Zook soil material had more organic matter and clay than the sandy loam Hanlon soil material. Batch equilibrium experiments were performed to generate adsorption isotherms, to determine the adsorption parameters, and to assess desorption hysteresis. Adsorption of BPA to both soils followed an L-type isotherm, and 4NP adsorbed to both Hanlon and Zook soils exhibited S-shape isotherms. EE2 adsorbed to the Zook soil also followed an S-shaped isotherm, but EE2 adsorbed to the Hanlon soil showed an H-type isotherm. Overall, the Sips model fit the data well, with standard errors of prediction generally ≤6%. The adsorption affinity (KLF) values were highest for 4NP, and BPA had the lowest hysteresis indices. The data suggest that BPA was most likely adsorbed by soil organic matter via hydrogen bonding involving its two phenolic groups. In contrast, isotherm shape, model affinity indices, lack of desorption, and molecular-scale characteristics led us to infer that 4NP was adsorbed largely by the retention of molecular clusters, perhaps in clay nanopores. Finally, the adsorption of EE2 exhibited different isotherm shapes for the two soils as well as intermediate affinity and desorption indices, suggesting that EE2 molecules could be retained both by soil organic matter and by clay.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We gratefully acknowledge support for this research from the US‐Israel Binational Agricultural Research and Development Fund; the Agronomy Department, Iowa State University; and the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, United States Department of Agriculture. We thank Ann Perera, Lucas Showman, and Kirthi Narayanaswamy of the Metabolomics Laboratory at Iowa State University for assistance with LC‐MS analyses. Finally, we are grateful for the reviewers’ comments and suggestions that significantly improved the manuscript.
© 2021 The Authors. Journal of Environmental Quality © 2021 American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America