Compositional and electrical properties of line and planar defects in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films for solar cells - a review

Daniel Abou-Ras*, Sebastian S. Schmidt, Norbert Schäfer, Jaison Kavalakkatt, Thorsten Rissom, Thomas Unold, Roland Mainz, Alfons Weber, Thomas Kirchartz, Ekin Simsek Sanli, Peter A. van Aken, Quentin M. Ramasse, Hans Joachim Kleebe, Doron Azulay, Isaac Balberg, Oded Millo, Oana Cojocaru-Mirédin, Daniel Barragan-Yani, Karsten Albe, Jakob HaarstrichCarsten Ronning

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations

Abstract

The present review gives an overview of the various reports on properties of line and planar defects in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 thin films for high-efficiency solar cells. We report results from various analysis techniques applied to characterize these defects at different length scales, which allow for drawing a consistent picture on structural and electronic defect properties. A key finding is atomic reconstruction detected at line and planar defects, which may be one mechanism to reduce excess charge densities and to relax deep-defect states from midgap to shallow energy levels. On the other hand, nonradiative Shockley-Read-Hall recombination is still enhanced with respect to defect-free grain interiors, which is correlated with substantial reduction of luminescence intensities. Comparison of the microscopic electrical properties of planar defects in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 thin films with two-dimensional device simulations suggest that these defects are one origin of the reduced open-circuit voltage of the photovoltaic devices.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)363-375
Number of pages13
JournalPhysica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters
Volume10
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 May 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Keywords

  • Cu(In,Ga)Se
  • Dislocations
  • Grain boundaries
  • Stacking faults
  • Twin boundaries

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