Modifications of the activity of Cytochrome 450 (CYP) enzymes by compounds in food might impair medical treatments. These CYP-mediated food–drug interactions (FDI) play a major role in drug clearance in the intestine and liver. Inter-individual variation in both CYP expression and structure is an important determinant of FDI. Traditional targeted approaches have highlighted a limited number of dietary inhibitors and single-nucleotide variations (SNVs), each determining personal CYP activity and inhibition. These approaches are costly in time, money and labor. Here, we review computational tools and databases that are already available and are relevant to predicting CYP-mediated FDIs. Computer-aided approaches such as protein–ligand interaction modeling and the virtual screening of big data narrow down hundreds of thousands of items in databanks to a few putative targets, to which the research resources could be further directed. Structure-based methods are used to explore the structural nature of the interaction between compounds and CYP enzymes. However, while collections of chemical, biochemical and genetic data are available today and call for the implementation of big-data approaches, ligand-based machine-learning approaches for virtual screening are still scarcely used for FDI studies. This review of CYP-mediated FDIs promises to attract scientists and the general public.
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© 2022 by the authors.
- dietary compounds
- food–drug interactions
- virtual screening