Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We acknowledge the contributions of many colleagues who have helped develop an evolving understanding of medical robotics and computer-integrated surgery. We are grateful to those who provided photographs and other information and to those who worked with us on system development. We also gratefully acknowledge the organizations that contributed financial and other support to this work, including National Science Foundation support of the Engineering Research Center for Computer-Integrated Surgical Systems and Technology under cooperative agreement number EEC9731478. Further funding came from other NSF grants, the National Institutes of Health, the Whitaker Foundation, IBM, Integrated Surgical Systems, Johns Hopkins, the Israel Ministry of Industry and Trade for the IZMEL Consortium on Image-Guided Therapy, and others.