Construction and Initial Validation of the Higher Education Orientations Questionnaire

Tirza Willner, Yuliya Lipshits-Braziler, Itamar Gati

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Attaining higher education continues to be important for successful integration into the 21st-century world of work. The goal of the present study was to develop and test a 5-dimensional model and a corresponding measure of individuals’ orientations toward higher education––the Higher Education Orientations (HEO) questionnaire. The proposed model comprises five orientations: Profession (attaining an occupation), Knowledge (expanding knowledge and intellectual horizons), Social (expanding social affiliation and integration), Prestige (attaining social status), and External (pleasing significant others). Study 1a (N = 798) supported the HEO questionnaire’s psychometric properties, and an EFA supported its five-factor structure. The results of a CFA in Study 1b (N = 748) confirmed the HEO’s five-dimensional structure. Study 2 (N = 395) supported the psychometric qualities of the HEO’s English version. In Study 3 (N = 713), using SEM, we found the HEO associated with (a) career decision status, (b) career decision-making difficulties, and (c) coping strategies, supporting its validity. Implications for research and counseling are discussed.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)85-108
Number of pages24
JournalJournal of Career Assessment
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2023

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© The Author(s) 2022.


  • career assessment
  • career counseling
  • career decision-making
  • coping styles
  • higher education orientations


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