Background: Studies have reported beneficial effects of exercise training on autoimmunity, and specifically on multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, it is unknown whether different training paradigms affect disease course via shared or separate mechanisms. Objective: To compare the effects and mechanism of immune modulation of high intensity continuous training (HICT) versus high intensity interval training (HIIT) on systemic autoimmunity in EAE. Methods: We used the proteolipid protein (PLP)-induced transfer EAE model to examine training effects on the systemic autoimmune response. Healthy mice performed HICT or HIIT by running on a treadmill. Lymph-node (LN)-T cells from PLP-immunized trained- versus sedentary donor mice were transferred to naïve recipients and EAE clinical and pathological severity were assessed. LN cells derived from donor trained and sedentary PLP-immunized mice were analyzed in vitro for T-cell activation and proliferation, immune cell profiling, and cytokine mRNA levels and cytokine secretion measurements. Results: Both HICT and HIIT attenuated the encephalitogenicity of PLP-reactive T cells, as indicated by reduced EAE clinical severity and inflammation and tissue pathology in the central nervous system, following their transfer into recipient mice. HICT caused a marked inhibition of PLP-induced T-cell proliferation without affecting the T-cell profile. In contrast, HIIT did not alter T-cell proliferation, but rather inhibited polarization of T cells into T-helper 1 and T-helper 17 autoreactive populations. Interpretation: HICT and HIIT attenuate systemic autoimmunity and T cell encephalitogenicity by distinct immunomodulatory mechanisms.
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© 2020 The Authors. Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Neurological Association