Continuous Traumatic Stress and the Life Cycle: Exposure to Repeated Political Violence in Israel

Ruth Pat-Horenczyk*, Miriam Schiff

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Purpose of Review: Millions of individuals and families live under continual exposure to threat such as protracted socio-political conflict or community violence facing current and future danger. The construct of continuous traumatic stress (CTS) was suggested as a supplement perspective for the understanding of the specific impact of living under both current and realistic future threat. Yet, the unique parameters, utility, and validity of the construct CTS are underexplored. Recent Findings: Currently, CTS describes both the exposure and the unique clinical conglomerate of distress. In this paper, we first elaborate on the rationale for the construct of CTS. Then, we present evidence on the consequences of exposure to CTS in the Israeli context of continual ongoing and prolonged political violence. Summary: Research on CTS is presented across the life cycle with an emphasis on risk and protective factors from a developmental perspective. We conclude with implications for research, assessment, and interventions.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number71
JournalCurrent Psychiatry Reports
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


  • Continuous traumatic stress
  • Israel
  • Terrorism
  • War


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