Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital

Salomon Israel, Avshalom Caspia, Daniel W. Belskyd, Hona Lee Harrington, Sean Hogan, Renate Houts, Shya Ramrakha, Seth Sersg, Richie Poulton, Terrie E. Moffitt*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors-educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control-predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for 45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)17087-17092
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number48
StatePublished - 2 Dec 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Cardiovascular disease risk
  • Consumer finance
  • Credit score
  • Human capital


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