Cross-cultural assessment of the Contextual Memory Test (CMT)

Naomi Josman, Adina Hartman‐Maeir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The Contextual Memory Test (CMT) measures aspects of memory and metamemory of people with cognitive disabilities. The assessment tool was originally developed and standardized in the United States. The objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate the applicability of the CMT to an Israeli population; (2) to further investigate the construct validity of the CMT to discriminate among age groups; and (3) to analyse the 40 items on the CMT from a cultural point of view. The CMT was administered to 217 typical Israeli adults, grouped into three age categories, closely matching those in the US normative study (Toglia, 1993). Similar levels of performance were obtained for Israelis and Americans on the various test components. Statistically significant differences between American and Israeli subjects' performance levels were evident in three memory components in the elderly groups (group 3) and in only two memory components in the young group (group 1). In addition, within-sample comparisons of the three Israeli age groups yielded significant age effects for recall, recognition, strategy use and general awareness. This study confirmed discriminant validity for the CMT. The tool seems to be highly appropriate for use by occupational therapists in assessing memory and metamemory with American and Israeli adult subjects. The relatively small size of the age groups and the lack of random selection of subjects are limitations of this study. Therefore, it is recommended that the study be replicated with a larger and randomized sample. The multifaceted nature of the assessment provides much more information than traditional recall scores, and the metamemory components enhance both differential diagnosis and appropriate planning of treatment.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)246-258
Number of pages13
JournalOccupational Therapy International
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2000


  • Assessment development
  • Contextual memory test
  • Memory
  • Metamemory


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