Local electrical transport measurements with scanning probe microscopy on polycrystalline (PX) p-CuInSe2 and p-Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films show that the photovoltaic and dark currents for bias voltages smaller than 1 V flow mainly through grain boundaries (GBs), indicating inversion at the GBs. Photocurrent for higher bias flows mainly via the grains. Based on these results and our finding of ∼100 meV GB band bending we deduce the potential landscape around the GBs. We suggest that high grain material quality, leading to large carrier mobilities, and electron-hole separation at the GBs, by chemical and electrical potential gradients, result in the high performance of these PX solar cells.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported in part by the Israel Science Foundation (the Jerusalem group) and by the Kimmel Centre for Nanoscale Science (WIS). We thank Dr. S. Cohen, WIS, for introducing us to the two-pass laser on/off method with the NT-MDT AFM system. DC holds the Schaefer Chair in Energy Research.
- Conductive AFM
- Grain boundaries
- Solar cell