Besides ubiquitin (Ub), humans have a set of ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) that can also covalently modify target proteins. To date, less is known about UBLs than Ub and even less is known about the UBL called ubiquitin-fold modifier 1 (UFM1). Currently, our understanding of protein modification by UFM1 (UFMylation) is like a jigsaw puzzle with many missing pieces, and in some cases it is not even clear whether these pieces of data are in the right place. Here we review the current data on UFM1 from structural biology to biochemistry and cell biology. We believe that the physiological significance of protein modification by UFM1 is currently underestimated and there is more to it than meets the eye.
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- Conjugating enzymes
- Ubiquitin-like proteins