Demographic and clinical factors associated with referrals and compliance to biopsy of oral and maxillofacial lesions

Rakefet Czerninski, Yehuda Zadik, Marilena Vered, Talia Becker, Ran Yahalom, Estela Derazne, Doron J. Aframian, Galit Almoznino*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: The gold standard for diagnosing oral disease is tissue biopsy. Data regarding compliance with advised oral and maxillofacial (OMF) biopsy are scarce. Purpose: To quantify compliance and evaluate the demographics and clinical factors associated with referrals and compliance with OMF biopsy procedures. Methods: Medical records of military personnel referred for a biopsy (RB; N = 669) of OMF lesions over a 4-year period were studied retrospectively. These patients were divided into performed the biopsy (PB; N = 386) and not perform biopsy (NPB; N = 283) groups. Demographic and clinical features were analyzed, and demographics were compared to a control group of general military personnel (N > 100 000). Results: The RB group differed from the control group regarding age >21 (OR = 1.681, P < 0.001) and education >12 years of schooling (OR = 1.545, P < 0.001). Differences between the PB and NPB groups related to the clinical features of the lesion but not to demographic parameters. Exophytic and suspected potentially malignant/malignant lesions were positively associated with higher compliance to biopsy (OR = 1.75, P = 0.004 and OR = 2.18, P = 0.017, respectively). Conclusion: Referrals to biopsy of OMF lesions are significantly influenced by age and education, whereas compliance is influenced by clinical features or suspected malignancy. Clinicians and health authorities should be aware of non-compliance, enhance awareness to biopsy as the gold standard in the diagnostic workup of OMF lesions, and closely monitor compliance patterns of patients with clinical and demographic risk factors.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)364-370
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Oral Pathology and Medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2014


  • Biopsy
  • Compliance
  • Oral health
  • Oral health education
  • Oral medicine


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