Density-functional theory for time-dependent systems

Erich Runge*, E. K.U. Gross

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7167 Scopus citations


A density-functional formalism comparable to the Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham theory of the ground state is developed for arbitrary time-dependent systems. It is proven that the single-particle potential v(r t) leading to a given v-representable density n(r t) is uniquely determined so that the corresponding map vn is invertible. On the basis of this theorem, three schemes are derived to calculate the density: a set of hydrodynamical equations, a stationary action principle, and an effective single-particle Schrödinger equation.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)997-1000
Number of pages4
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Issue number12
StatePublished - 1984
Externally publishedYes


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