Objectives: Timely detection of gastric cancer (GC) and the related precancerous lesions could provide a tool for decreasing both cancer mortality and incidence. Design: 968 breath samples were collected from 484 patients (including 99 with GC) for two different analyses. The first sample was analysed by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry (GCMS) while applying t test with multiple corrections (p value<0.017); the second by cross-reactive nanoarrays combined with pattern recognition. For the latter, 70% of the samples were randomly selected and used in the training set while the remaining 30% constituted the validation set. The operative link on gastric intestinal metaplasia (OLGIM) assessment staging system was used to stratify the presence/absence and risk level of precancerous lesions. Patients with OLGIM stages III-IV were considered to be at high risk. Results: According to the GCMS results, patients with cancer as well as those at high risk had distinctive breathprint compositions. Eight significant volatile organic compounds (p value<0.017) were detected in exhaled breath in the different comparisons. The nanoarray analysis made it possible to discriminate between the patients with GC and the control group (OLGIM 0-IV) with 73% sensitivity, 98% specificity and 92% accuracy. The classification sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy between the subgroups was as follows: GC versus OLGIM 0-II-97%, 84% and 87%; GC versus OLGIM III-IV-93%, 80% and 90%; but OLGIM I-II versus OLGIM III-IV and dysplasia combined-83%, 60% and 61%, respectively. Conclusions: Nanoarray analysis could provide the missing non-invasive screening tool for GC and related precancerous lesions as well as for surveillance of the latter. Trial registration number: Clinical Trials.gov number, NCT01420588 (3/11/2013).
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors acknowledge other expert pathologists who contributed to the pathology analysis (Dainius Janciauskas and Sergejs Isajevs) and other researchers for their contribution to this work (Dr Yoav Broza, Dr. Viki Kloper, and Mr Rotem Magal). The research leading to these results was funded from the FP7''s ERC grant under DIAG-CANCER (grant agreement no. 256639; HH). The clinical work performed in Latvia was funded in part from the grant No. 305/2012 from the Latvian Council of Science.