Determination of annual plasma hormone levels associated with reproduction in long-day breeding domestic geese

Małgorzata Gumułka*, Nataly Avital-Cohen, Israel Rozenboim

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


This paper examines the dynamics of circulating hormone changes connected with reproduction in geese during the annual period related to gonad morphometry. One hundred geese were examined. The levels of prolactin (PRL), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), testosterone (T), progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) were estimated. In both sexes, PRL level patterns fit a quadratic trend with elevations in the post-breeding and the second half of the breeding–laying periods. During these periods, differences in the PRL level between sexes were noted. In ganders, increased PRL levels during the laying period occurred earlier compared to in female geese. Cubic trends for T and E2 in ganders and quadratic for T, P4, and E2 in female geese were observed. PRL was negatively correlated with T in both sexes and with P4 and E2 in female geese. A higher level of T3 and variation in T4 in ganders with a quartic trend in ganders vs. a quadratic in female geese were noted. Patterns of PRL, T, and E2 suggested that the breeding–laying period in ganders may be shorter than in female geese. These findings will be used to explore experimental manipulations of the endocrine axis to increase synchronisation of both sexes.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number2363
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Geese
  • Gonadal steroids
  • Prolactin
  • Reproduction
  • Thyroid hormones


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