Development and initial validation of the Gilboa functional test (GIFT): A unique measure for preschool graphomotor screening

Yafit Gilboa*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Introduction: Fine motor and graphomotor skills are essential for children’s healthy development, as well as for successful participation in everyday activities. The Gilboa functional test (GIFT) is a newly developed norm-referenced screening instrument for use with children 3–6 years old. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the GIFT as a new measure for preschool graphomotor screening. Method: A community-based sample of 611 children aged 3–6 years was screened. Findings: Content validity was established via a panel of experts. The GIFT demonstrated good test–retest (0.95) and inter-rater reliability (0.94), demonstrating good concurrent validity in scores which significantly correlated with the Beery-VMI (r = 0.32, P < 0.05), the Beery-MC (r = 0.33, P < 0.05), the ‘manual dexterity’ subcategory of the movement assessment battery for children (r = –0.364, P < 0.05) and the total score of the developmental coordination disorder questionnaire ’07 (DCDQ’07)/little DCDQ (r = 0.41, P < 0.01). A significant difference in total GIFT scoring was found between children from mainstream versus special education preschools (t = 3.99, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The GIFT is a unique tool that measures performance skills based on preschool children’s everyday activities. It can be used by paediatric occupational therapists as a first step for early identification of children potentially at risk for graphomotor/fine motor developmental delay.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)660-667
Number of pages8
JournalBritish Journal of Occupational Therapy
Issue number11
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2017

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© 2017, © The Author(s) 2017.


  • Screening test
  • developmental delay
  • fine motor
  • graphomotor
  • preschool activities


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