Developmental trends in handwriting performance among middle school children

Naomi Weintraub*, Anat Drory-Asayag, Rivki Dekel, Hanna Jokobovits, Shula Parush

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to describe developmental trends in handwriting performance and determine which handwriting components influence legibility among middle school students. One hundred thirty-four Israeli students in grades 7 to 9 (age range = 12 to 15.5 years, mean age = 13.5 years) who wrote in Hebrew were assessed using a standardized handwriting test. Results indicated that legibility and speed did not improve from year to year, the handwriting performance of girls was significantly better than that of boys, and letter formation (but not spatial organization) significantly contributed to handwriting legibility. These results support findings from studies relating to the English language and may assist occupational therapists who work in middle schools to both identify students with handwriting difficulties and develop appropriate intervention programs. Yet, because this is one of the few studies that relates to handwriting performance of middle school students, additional studies on other aspects of this skill in this age group are necessary.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)104-112
Number of pages9
JournalOTJR Occupation, Participation and Health
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2007


  • Handwriting development
  • Handwriting performance
  • Middle school


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