Dialysis in Israel, 1989-2005 - Time trends and international comparisons

Ronit Calderon-Margalit*, Ethel Sherry Gordon, Moshe Hoshen, Jeremy D. Kark, Anat Rotem, Ziona Haklai

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Background. A universal increase in the incidence of renal replacement therapy (RRT) was reported in developed countries during the 1990s, especially among the elderly and diabetic patients. We studied trends in RRT incidence and mortality in Israel between 1989 and 2001-2005. Methods. The end-stage renal disease (ESRD) registry holds data on all RRT patients in Israel. Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios (RRs) were estimated comparing 2001-2005 with 1989. We compared incidence data between Israel and elsewhere using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Survival analysis was conducted by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox's proportional hazards regression was used to compare survival of diabetic with non-diabetic ESRD patients. Results. The mean incidence rates per million population increased from 99 in 1989-1991 to 179 in 2003-2005. In 2000, Israel was the second leading country for incidence of RRT.Age-adjusted incidence rates increased by 67% [95% confidence interval (CI): 49-87%], from 1989 to 2001, but the trend was attenuated between 2002 and 2005. The increase in incidence was positively associated with age, the largest increase being among the elderly aged <75 years (RR: 3.18, 95%CI: 2.72-3.70). Diabetes accounted for 41% of RRT in 2001 vs only 19% in 1989. There was no increase in 1-year survival between the beginning and the end of the study period. Patients with diabetes-associated RRT had 57% increased risk of 1-year mortality (adjusted HR: 1.57 95% CI: 1.51-1.63). Conclusions. Despite a similar proportion of RRT attributed to diabetes in Israel and other countries, the age-adjusted incidence in Israel is considerably higher than most countries.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)659-664
Number of pages6
JournalNephrology Dialysis Transplantation
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2008


  • End-stage renal disease
  • Incidence
  • Renal replacement therapy
  • Secular trends
  • Survival


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